Risk Assessment in Oil companies
ساعت ۱٠:۱۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳۸۸/۳/۱٠   کلمات کلیدی: risk assessment ،oil and gas drilling ،incident prevention ،oil company

1  Overall objectives

It is a legal and Company requirement that throughout Company activities, the risk to health, personnel assets and environment are identified and the means, by which they are minimised, are to be defined.

Particularly, as far as the employees and contractors working on Company operating sites are concerned, a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risk to workers and any others who may be affected by their undertaking should be carried out and significant findings of that assessment should be recorded.

Taking consideration of the OIL COMPANY activities, the implementation of this risk evaluation should cover :

·          The drilling activities (engineering phase) by using "HAZID", "HAZOP" and "Project technical reviews" studies.

 

·          major maintenance activities by using Risk Identification methods.

2  Basic requirement for a suitable risk assessment

A suitable and sufficient risk assessment should allow:

2.1         To identify the significant risks arising out of works

This means focusing on those risks that are liable to arise because of the work activity. Trivial risks can usually be ignored as can risks arising from routine activities associated with life in general, unless the work activity compounds those risks, or there is evidence of significant relevance to the particular work activity.

It is the responsibility of local Management to insure that a proper training is given to any employee or contractors worker to familiarise themselves with the environmental hazards and the specific risks in their work.

In the case of any personnel movement, local Management should ensure that the new job holder has the required skill and competence.

2.2         To prioritise the preventive measures

A suitable risk assessment should enable the person in charge of the Operation (performing authority in the work permit system) to identify and prioritise the measures that need to be taken to comply with the relevant H.S.E rules and Site Safe Operating Practices.

2.3         To be appropriate to the nature of the work

This will enable the risk assessment and the significant findings to be used positively by management, for example to change working procedures or to introduce medium to long-term controls.

For relatively static operations, the risk assessment should be such that it is not necessary to repeat it every time someone is exposed to a hazard in comparable circumstances.

When necessary a specific procedure based on the risk assessment conclusions is issued.

For more dynamic activities, i.e.. where the detailed work activity may change fairly frequently, or the workplace itself changes and develops (e.g. on a construction site) the risk assessment might have to concentrate more on the broad range of risks that might arise, so that detailed planning and employee training can take account of those risks and enable them to be controlled as and when they arise (site preparation, equipment erection, cable pulling, pre-commissioning, commissioning …)

3  Basic criteria for a risk assessment methodology

A suitable risk assessment methodology and adequate procedures satisfy the following criteria :

3.1         To ensure that all relevant risks or hazards are addressed

The aim is to identify the significant risks in the workplace. Do not obscure those risks with an excess information or by concentrating on trivial risks.

In most cases, first identify the hazards i.e. those aspects of work (for example, substances or equipment use, work processes, or work organisation) which have the potential to cause harm.

If there are specific Acts or Regulations to be complied with, these may help to identify the hazards ; if there are no hazards, there are no risks. Some risks may already be controlled in some way, whether by deliberate measures or by the circumstances in which they are found. The effectiveness of those controls needs to be taken into account in assessing the residual risk.

Be systematic in looking at hazards and risks. For example it may be necessary to look at hazards or risks in groups such as machinery, transport, substances, electrical, etc. In some cases, an operation by operation approach may be needed.

Ensure all aspects and all phases of the work activity are reviewed.

3.2         To address what actually happened in the work place or during the work activity

Actual practice may differ from the works manual; indeed this is frequently a route whereby risks creep in unnoticed.

Think about the non-routine operations, e.g. non routine maintenance operations, heavy lifting, testing periods, temporary modifications.

Interruptions to the work activity are a frequent cause of accidents. Look at management of such incidents and the procedures to be followed.

3.3         To ensure that all groups of employees and others who might be affected are considered

Do not forget office staff, cleaners, maintenance staff, security guards, visitors.

3.4         To identify groups of workers who might be particularly at risk

For example, young or inexperienced workers; those who work alone; contractor teams not familiar with environmental conditions.

3.5         To take account of existing preventive or precautionary measures.

They may already reduce the risk sufficiently in terms of what needs to comply with relevant legal provisions. But are they working properly? Does action need to be taken to ensure they are properly maintained?

4  Recording

A proper record and file of assessment studies should be required as reference for further works or regular revision for routine activities.

The record will often refer to and rely on other documents such as standing instructions, Safe Operating Practices or "OPERGUIDE" type procedures. However significant findings should be recorded in writing and should include :

·          The significant hazards identified in the assessment. That is, those hazards which might pose serious risk to workers or others who might be affected by the work activity, if they were not properly controlled;

·          The existing control measures in place and the extent to which they control the risks (this need not replicate details of measures more fully described in works manuals, etc. but could refer to them);

·          Persons who may be affected by these significant risks of hazards, including any groups of employees who are especially at risk.

5  Oil Company Risk assessment

For any activities carried out under OIL COMPANY control, and particularly for which of a non routine matter, a specific risk assessment has to be carried out.

Most work on OIL COMPANY operating sites are carried out under the cover of a Permit to work system (P.T.W.). This, in itself, is a form of Risk Assessment and Hazard Control. Nevertheless, work carried out under the cover of P.T.W., particularly when requesting several phases of different nature (lifting, handling, testing, taking measurement, installing protective devices…), requires risk assessment to be carried out to support preventative and corrective measures requested under the P.T.W

5.1         Risk Assessment methodology

 

       5.1.1Risk assessment Objectives

 

Main objectives in Risk Assessment are:

 

a)       To comply with Company policy for accident prevention and risk reduction

b)      To comply with legal and Company requirements for risk assessment.

 

5.1.2.           Risk assessment in practice

 

A risk assessment may be defined as an identification of the hazards present in a task and an estimate of the extent of the risks involved, taking into account whatever precautions are already being taken.

 

It is essentially a three-stage process:

 

i)                     Identification of all the hazards,

ii)                   Evaluation of the risks, and

iii)                  Measures to control the risks.

 

Risk assessment has many purposes:

 

q       assist in decision making,

q       ensure fulfilment of Company accident prevention objectives,

q       achieve compliance with general legal duty,

q       assist in the identification of priorities,

q       identify suitable and effective control measures of risk linked to the activity,

q       ensure that work activities are positively studied,

q       Make workers, directly involved in the activity, owner of control measures to be implemented.

 

In order to be suitable and sufficient, a risk assessment must:

 

a)         Identify all the hazards associated with the operation, and evaluate the risks arising from those hazards.  (Taking into account of relevant Acts and Regulations.)

b)         Record the significant findings.

c)         Identify any group of employees who are especially at risk.

d)         Identify others who may be especially at risk, e.g. visitors, contractors, members of the public.

e)         Evaluate existing controls, stating whether or not they are satisfactory, and if not, what actions need to be taken. This should include training and information.

f)          Judge and record the probability or likelihood of an accident occurring as a result of uncontrolled risk. Also record a reasonable foreseeable outcome.

g)         Identify what information is needed for employees on the risks to their health and safety identified by the assessment, the precautions to be taken and emergency arrangements.

h)         Provide an action plan from each risk assessment, giving information on implementation of additional controls, in order of priority, and within a realistic time scale.

 

 

NOTE: Definitions

 

HAZARD         The exposed danger. A condition or practice with potential for harm or loss.

 

RISK The chance of loss arising from exposure to the HAZARD.

6  Management of Risk Assessment

It is required that risk assessment be carried out as close to the activity as possible, by those directly involved, using simple techniques which require a minimum amount of paperwork. To do this effectively the following actions must be followed:

6.1         To form a risk assessment team

 

It is the responsibility of the company representative to appoint responsible persons which will be trained in Risk Assessment techniques to lead dedicated risk assessment teams to be called for specific jobs.

Particularly designated job requesters, operating and safety authorities and job performers under the P.T.W. should be trained to lead risk assessment meetings.

In addition, employee / contractor staff carrying out the task / activity and outside operators which have areas of knowledge and expertise relevant to the successful assessment of risks are good candidates for risk assessment teams.

 

The long term objective is to actively involve the person carrying out the task / activity in risk assessment of their work areas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.2         To identify the Hazards

 

The appointed person or team will identify the hazards in the workplace. There are a number of ways in which hazards can be identified. The following list gives the hazards which may need to be considered when carrying out risk assessment.

 

1.        Fall of person from height

2.        Fall of person from height, when Use of machines

3.        Fire (including static electricity)

4.        Drowning

5.        Stored energy

6.        Contact with cold / hot surfaces

7.        Mechanical lifting operations

8.        Ionising radiation

9.        Vibration

10.     Adverse weather

11.     Stacking

12.     Lighting

13.     Cleaning

14.     Fall of object / material from height

15.     Manual handling

16.     Operation of vehicles

17.     Electricity

18.     Excavation work

19.     Explosions (from chemicals / dust)

20.     Compressed air

21.     Noise

22.     Non-ionising radiation

23.     Hand tools

24.     Chemicals / substances

25.     Housekeeping

26.     Confined spaces

 

Some routine tasks (not covered by P.T.W.) may be formally documented in a written procedure. The procedure should be looked at to see if the procedure is adequate or requires amendment to reduce the risk.

 

 

6.3         To carry out a Risk Assessment

 

The risk assessment is to be carried out using the Risk Assessment sheet (Attachment 1) and should formally document the results on a specific action list to be attached to the P.T.W. form.

 

The risk calculation is based on Probability categories and consequences categories of a lower magnitude than the ones used in major hazards risk assessment since the events to be looked at are of a more trivial and routine nature.

 

6.4         Recording and maintaining controls

 

To be effective, it is required that risk assessments have not only to be suitable and sufficient, but also to be maintained to ensure that they remain valid. This means that they must be kept under review and updated periodically. This is best achieved by a suitable combination of inspection and monitoring techniques, taking corrective / additional actions where the need is identified.

Regular P.T.W. inspection should cover this requirement.

 


                                                                                     Risk assessment calculation sheet for human        

                                                                                                                                                                                                     Page:

Location:                               Process:                                                                                                                                                                Record of Assessment N°:

Probability (P)

Severity (S)

Almost certain

9

Less than even chance

4

Death

9

LTA 3 days

4

Very likely

8

improbable

3

Total Incapacity

8

LTA 1 days

3

probable

7

Highly impossible

2

Sever Incapacity

7

Minor injury

2

More than even chance

6

Almost impossible

1

Slightly Incapacity

6

Non significant injury

1

even chance

5

 

 

LTA 3 week

5

 

 

 

                                                                                      BEFORE                                                                                                                    AFTER

EVENT (Hazard)

P

S

Risk N°

REMEDY

P

S

Risk N°

1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Date:                                                                             Assessor:

 

 


 

Another ranking of severity in risk assessment summarized in this table

 

 

                               

severity

Environment

Human

Equipment

1

Negligible

Immediate clean-up

No lost-time accident (LTA)

Insignificant damage to equipment. Cost < U$ 104 or prod. Losses < 5 kboe.

2

Moder.

Clean up in less than 2 days

Single LTA. No prolonged disability

Limited damage to equipment. Cost betw. U$ 104 and 105 or prod. Losses btw. 5 kboe and 50 kboe.

3

Severe

Clean up in less than 1 week

Multiple LTA and/or prolonged disability to one person.

Significant damage to local area or essential equipment. Cost betw.
U$ 105 and 106 or prod. Losses betw. 50 kboe and 500 kboe.

4

Major

Clean up in less than 1 month

One fatal casualty and/or several prolonged disability.

Damage extending to several areas, significant impairment of installations and equipment Cost betw.
U$ 106and 107or prod. Losses betw. 500kboe and 5 Mboe.

5

Catast.

Clean up in more than 1 month

More than one fatal casualty.

Extensive damage or loss of installation. Cost more than U$ 107 or prod. Losses > 5 Mboe.

 

 

Ranking of probability in risk assessment

 

probability

Very high

5

High

4

Moderate

3

Low

2

Very Low

1

 

Comparison of quantified risk calculation (both frequency and magnitude of consequences) from the risk analysis with the criteria of acceptance resulting from the risk evaluation. The ALARP principle shall be used for decision-making. If found not acceptable, risk reduction measures shall be implemented.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The following matrix shall be used to decide whether a risk is acceptable:

 

Very likely

³

10 yr-1

B2

B1

A

A

A

Likely

³

1 yr-1

B2

B1

A

A

A

Occasional

³

10 –1 yr-1

B2

B2

B1

A

A

Unlikely

³

10 –2 yr-1

B2

B2

B2

B1

A

Very unlikely

³

10 –3 yr-1

C

B2

B2

B2

B1

Rare

³

10 –4 yr-1

C

B2

B2

B2

B3

Very rare

³

10 –5 yr-1

C

C

B2

B2

B2

Extremely rare

10 –5 yr-1

C

C

B2

B2

B2

 

 

 

Negligible

Moderate

Severe

Major

Catastr'c

 

Legend

 

A   :     unacceptable

 

B1 :     non prohibitive risk but where cost effective risk reduction measures shall be incorporated for new installations and should be incorportated on exiting facilities.

 

B2 :     non prohibitive risk where cost effective risk reduction measures shall be considered for all installation but are not compulsory.

 

B3 :     for high occupancy permanently manned platforms (e.g. living quarters, integrated platforms, etc.) risk in this area shall be considered B1. For all other normally manned or unmanned facilities risk shall be as per B2.

 

C   :     negligible risk.